# Looping turtles

Earlier, our turtle has drawn a square according to our instructions. But our instructions repeated themselves: Walk 100 steps, turn 90 degrees left, and then do the same thing four times, once for each side of the square.

But this repetition must mean one thing: We can use a loop!

## Repeated sides

If we can find a pattern in what we're trying to do, we can express it much simpler and more powerful. When we draw the square we're doing the same thing four times:

```
# Walk forward 100 steps
# Turn 90 degrees to the left
# Walk forward 100 steps
# urn 90 degrees to the left
# Walk forward 100 steps
# Turn 90 degrees to the left
# Walk forward 100 steps
# Turn 90 degrees to the left
```

That means we'd rather express it as such:

```
for i in range(0, 4):
# Walk forward 100 steps
# Turn 90 degrees to the left
```

A complete program can therefore be this short::

```
from turtle import *
color('blue')
for i in range(0, 4):
forward(100)
left(90)
```

## Generalisation

In science, mathematics, and programming, finding a pattern and writing something general about that is a strength - finding one *formula* that expresses a deep connection.

Earlier, we wrote a program to pick what shape the turtle should draw and had square and triangle as alternatives. But what if we wanted more?

The angle sum of a regular geometric shape with n sides can be calculated with the following *formula:*

$$\texttt{Angles sum}=180\cdot(n-2)$$

That means each inner angle, with n sides, is:

$$\text{Angle} = \frac{\texttt{Angles sum}}{n}=\frac{180\cdot(n-2)}{n}$$

The turtle needs to turn the outer angle of this, so we need to subtract this from 180:

$$\text{Angle} = 180 - \frac{\texttt{Angles sum}}{n}=180 - \frac{180\cdot(n-2)}{n}=180\cdot\frac{2}{n}$$

Using this *formula,* the turtle can draw any regular geometric shape!

We start by including the parts we need:

```
import turtle
turtle.color('red')
```

Then, we need to ask how many sides to draw:

`n = int(input("How many sides?"))`

We can even ensure that it's not wrong. For example, the user might enter 2 or 1, or even a negative number. That's not enough for a proper geometric figure. We need at least 3 sides, and we can solve that with an *if-statement*:

```
if n < 3:
print("You must enter at least 3 sides")
n = 3
```

Once we know the number of sides we can use the formula above to calculate how much to turn:

`angle = 180*(2/n)`

What's left? We use the same loop as before, but with the *variable* **angle** instead of 90:

```
for i in range(0, n):
turtle.forward(100)
turtle.left(angle)
```

### Here's the complete program:

But this code is missing comments. Where would you add them?

**Read page in other languages**

In this video, we use * for-loops* to draw more intricate turtle patterns.

**Formula**: Is a mathematical expression that describes a specific law or rule.**If-statement**: The keyword "**if**" followed by a logical condition allows our program to make decisions.

**Difficulty level**